Preventing Sexual Orientation Discrimination in the Workplace
Traditionally, gay and lesbian employees have found little in the law to protect them from discrimination and harassment in the
workplace. Times are changing, however, and a growing number of employers are finding themselves responsible for providing a
workplace that's free of harassment and discrimination based on sexual orientation.
Federal laws. While there is no federal law that prohibits this type of discrimination in private employment, an executive order
specifically outlaws discrimination based on sexual orientation in the federal government.
If you are a private employer and you operate your business in a state, county, or city with a law or ordinance prohibiting sexual
orientation discrimination, you must follow that law despite the fact that there is no federal law in place.
State laws. Twenty states and the District of Columbia have laws that currently prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in
private employment: California, Colorado, Connecticut, Hawaii, Illinois, Iowa, Maine, Maryland, Massachusetts, Minnesota,
Nevada, New Hampshire, New Jersey, New Mexico, New York, Oregon, Rhode Island, Vermont, Washington, and Wisconsin.
Some of these states also specifically prohibit discrimination based on gender identity. (In addition, a handful of states have laws
prohibiting sexual orientation discrimination in public workplaces only.)
Local laws. Locally, many cities and counties nationwide prohibit sexual orientation discrimination in at least some workplaces --
from Albany, New York to Ypsilanti, Michigan.
To find out whether your state, county, or city has a law prohibiting discrimination on the basis of sexual orientation, contact
your state labor department or your state fair employment office. You can also visit the Lambda Legal Defense and Education
Fund website at www.lambdalegal.org, where you will find a state-by-state list of antidiscrimination laws, including city and
Other Ways Employees Can Sue You
Even if there is no law in your state, city, or county prohibiting sexual orientation discrimination, you should tread lightly in this
area. A prudent employer won't make decisions based on factors or characteristics unrelated to the job (such as sexual
orientation), even if no law explicitly prohibits it.
If you have an employee who feels that he or she has been treated unfairly and/or injured because of his or her sexual orientation,
that employee can still sue you under a number of legal theories that have nothing to do with discrimination.
These theories include the following:
intentional or negligent infliction of emotional distress
invasion of privacy
interference with employment contract, and
termination in violation of public policy.
© 2010 Nolo
Reprinted with permission from the publisher, Nolo, Copyright 2009, http://www.nolo.com
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Lurie Law Firm LLC represents employees and employers throughout Northern New Jersey and Central New Jersey, including Montclair,
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A growing number of states prohibit discrimination against gay and lesbian employees.